LMS Bylaws

BY-LAWS OF THE LOWER MERION SYNAGOGUE

Lower Merion Township, Pennsylvania

 

ARTICLE I – NAME AND PURPOSE

1.1 Name. This organization shall be known as The Lower Merion Synagogue (the “Congregation”).

1.2 Purpose. The purpose of this organization shall be to provide a place of worship in accordance with the laws of Torah-true Judaism and to provide such additional religious, educational and social programs as will meet the needs of its membership consonant with the functioning of a Torah-true synagogue.

 

ARTICLE II – MEMBERSHIP AND DUES

2.1 Qualifications. Any Jewish person of good moral character who has reached the age of eighteen (18) shall be eligible for membership in the Congregation upon his or her request to the Rabbi or the President.

2.2 Full Membership. The Lower Merion Synagogue provides for various levels of membership. An individual may become a full member of the Lower Merion Synagogue or continue to be a full member in good standing if such individual has either paid dues in full or, based on need and in accordance with the procedure provided below, a lesser amount, and has otherwise satisfied all other monetary obligations and commitments to the Synagogue as and when due. No less than fifty percent of membership dues shall be paid for the fiscal year for which they are assessed before Rosh Hashanah of such fiscal year. The balance will be due prior to the end of such fiscal year.

(For the purposes of this document, the use of the word “member” may refer to a single member or a couple member. Furthermore, the use of the word “his”, will be deemed to mean his or her.)

A full member in good standing is entitled to the following:

(a) Yomim Noraim seats. These seats are for 1 or 2 adults, depending if the member is a single or a couple, and all unmarried children under 23 years of age who are either in college or are living at home. Additional seats, if desired, must be purchased at the full member guest rate for those members’ children who are either married, or who are unmarried and over 23 years of age. A full member must also purchase additional Yomim Noraim seats for his other guests. The full member’s rate for an additional Yomim Noraim guest seat was $ 100 as of 2007/5767. This rate is subject to change at the discretion of the Board which shall set such rates.

(b) a member’s rate when booking the shul facilities;

(c) one vote in any synagogue election, if a single; or two votes in any such election if a couple;

(d) all Mikveh privileges;

(e) receipt of all shul mailings, either by mail or e-mail.

2.3 Associate Membership. An associate member is one whose primary synagogue membership is maintained at another Philadelphia-area congregation. An associate member will be required to provide written acknowledgment of his affiliation and status as a full member in good standing with another Philadelphia-area congregation when he enrolls as an associate member. An associate member will also be required, on an annual basis, to confirm his continued affiliation and status as a full member in good standing at another Philadelphia-area congregation.

An associate member in good standing is entitled to the following:

(a) An associate member is NOT entitled to Yomim Noraim seats, as by definition, an associate member’s primary synagogue is not the Lower Merion Synagogue. However, if an associate member desires Yomim Noraim seats, these seats can be purchased at the member rate, which was $ 100 per seat as of 2007/5767. However, the consecutive purchase of Yomim Noraim seats will be justification for LMS to revoke that member’s status as an associate member, and that associate member will then need to upgrade his membership to full member for the third year.

(b) a member’s rate when booking the shul facilities;

(c) one half vote in any synagogue election, if a single; or one vote in any such election if a couple;

(d) all Mikveh privileges;

(e) receipt of all shul mailings, either by mail or e-mail.

2.4 Mailing List Membership. A mailing list member category was established to allow those former members who moved away from the area to keep their ties with LMS. Those former LMS members who have made aliyah are entitled to a free mailing list membership. They will receive their mailings via e-mail. Persons living in zip codes 19004, 19066, 19096, 19131, or 19151 (the five zip codes) are ineligible to become mailing list members. Those persons are welcome to visit the synagogue web site and download whatever information is available from weekly announcements, synagogue bulletins, Eruv alerts, etc. Notwithstanding the above, those persons, living in the above five zip codes, who have already paid for a Mailing List Membership for that fiscal year will have their mailing-list membership honored by LMS for that fiscal year. No new mailing list memberships for these five zip codes will be accepted from 2004/5764 or beyond.

(a) A mailing list member has no standing as a member as defined by the LMS by-laws.

(b) A mailing list member (single or couple), shall pay $ 75 per year. This rate is subject to change at the discretion of the Board which shall set such rates.

(c) A mailing list member is not entitled to Yomim Noraim seats. These seats can be purchased for an additional charge. The mailing list member rate for Yomim Noraim seat was $200 as of 2007/5767. This rate is subject to change at the discretion of the Board which shall set such rates.

(d) A mailing list member is not entitled to any member’s discount when booking the shul facilities.

(e) A mailing list member is not entitled to vote in any synagogue election.

(f) A mailing list member is NOT entitled to Mikveh privileges, but instead may join the LMS Mikveh Association.

(g) A mailing list member will receive all shul mailings by e-mail, or mail.

2.5 Dues. The membership of the Congregation shall, from time to time, establish the amount of annual dues for members and associate members. The Board shall recommend any changes in dues rates to the Synagogue membership who must approve any change.

It is the policy of this Synagogue not to deny membership to any member seeking need-based monetary relief from paying his dues. If a member needs monetary relief from making a full payment, he should contact the President, Treasurer, Rabbi or another LMS officer to whom the President delegates this duty, to arrange monetary relief. Nevertheless, payment is to be consistent with such individual’s financial circumstances. A member seeking monetary relief will be asked to pay his dues on an installment plan and, if such member is unable to make such payment, the member will be asked what he reasonably believes he can afford during the applicable fiscal year. Appropriate relief for the coming fiscal year will be granted based on such discussion.

Special financial consideration will be given to students and young couples. The yearly dues for a student/young couple shall at a minimum be no less than 20% of a full member’s dues.

A member who has obtained monetary relief from paying his dues in full is in all respects a full member for that fiscal year.

Special Assessments. A full member shall be assessed for the new building fund. This 1992-enacted assessment was: $ 2,000 per couple, $ 1,000 per single, payable over 5 years.

A full member who has obtained monetary relief in accordance with the foregoing procedure will continue to be obligated to pay whatever special assessment was in place at the time of his joining the Synagogue, but such special assessment shall be suspended during the period monetary relief has been granted.

Commencing on the date when the member no longer has a need to seek monetary relief from paying his dues in full, such member shall be obligated to pay whatever special assessment was in effect at the time the member joined the Synagogue in addition to any subsequent assessments that may have been approved by the Synagogue membership. In accordance with the procedure outlined above, such payment of an assessment may be spread over a longer period than required based on such member’s financial need.

An associate member shall be assessed for the new building fund. This 1992-enacted assessment was: $ 1,000 per couple, $ 500 per single, payable over 5 years.

2.6 Membership Year. The membership year shall commence on June 1 of each year. The Board of Directors shall fix a schedule for the payment of dues and the period beyond which a member shall not be considered in good standing.

2.7 Good Standing. A member or associate member in good standing is one who:

(a) has paid dues in full for the membership year, or

(b) has, at the time in question, paid such portion of the annual dues fixed by the Board of Directors to be paid by such time pursuant to Section 2.5, or

(c) has made arrangements for the payment of such dues with, and satisfactory to, the Treasurer, or

(d) has, to the satisfaction of either the Rabbi or the President, been excused in whole or in part from the payment of dues because of financial hardship, and

(e) does not owe any past-due sums for dues or other obligations to the Congregation for which a payment schedule with and satisfactory to the Treasurer has not been established.

2.8 Use of Synagogue Facilities. Members in good standing shall be entitled to the use of synagogue facilities under such conditions and at such costs as shall be established by the Board of Directors.

2.9 Meetings. The Congregation will meet regularly at an annual meeting once a year during the month of May or June.

2.10 Special Meetings. The President, or in his absence, any Vice-President, or the Board of Directors may call special meetings of the Congregation from time to time. It shall also be the duty of the President to call a special meeting of the Congregation whenever requested to do so in writing by thirty six (36) members of the Congregation in good standing. Reasonable notice of such meetings in writing shall be given to the members by the Corresponding Secretary. The purpose of the special meeting must be specified in the notice and no other business may be transacted at the meeting.

2.11 Quorum. Twenty five (25) members of the Congregation shall constitute a quorum for the conduct of business, but a lesser number may adjourn the meeting to a specific time and place.

 

ARTICLE III – OFFICERS

3.1 Offices. The officers of the Congregation shall consist of a President, a first Vice-President, a second Vice-President, a Vice President of Committees, a Treasurer, a Recording Secretary and a Corresponding Secretary.

3.2 Term. The term of office for each officer shall be two (2) years or until his or her successor shall have been elected. No individual shall be eligible to serve more than two (2) successive terms in the same office.

3.3 Eligibility. Any member in good standing shall be eligible for election to an office.

3.4 Vacancies.

(a) Upon the death, disability or resignation of the President, the first Vice-President shall assume the presidency of the Congregation. A first Vice-President who replaces a President with more than one (1) year remaining in his term shall be deemed to have served a full two (2) year term. In the event that the first Vice-President is unable to assume the presidency, the Board of Directors shall appoint an acting President. In the event that less than six (6) months remain in the term of the President, the acting President so appointed shall serve until the end of such term. In the event that more than six (6) months remain in the term of the President, the Board of Directors shall convene a nominations committee in accordance with the requirements of Section 6.2 to nominate a president for election by the Congregation at a special meeting of the members to be convened by the Board.

(b) Upon the death, disability or resignation of any other officer, the Board of Directors shall fill such vacancy and the person appointed to fill such vacancy shall serve until the end of the term of office being filled.

3.5 Duties. The officers shall have those powers and duties which normally pertain to their respective offices in addition to those duties specifically set forth herein. The officers shall recognize the necessity of and maintain the confidentiality which pertains to information regarding members of the Congregation to which they are privy by virtue of the offices which they hold.

3.6 The President.

(a) The President shall preside at all meetings of the Board of Directors, the Congregation and the Executive Committee.

(b) The President shall prepare and deliver an annual report on the state of the Congregation at the annual meeting of the Congregation.

(c) The President shall have the power to authorize expenditures not exceeding Twenty Five Hundred Dollars ($2,500) each between meeting of the Board of Directors. In an emergency situation the President is authorized to spend up to Ten Thousand Dollars ($10,000) provided that these expenditures are approved by both the Treasurer and the Committee Chair responsible for the emergency situation. All expenditures must be disclosed to the Board at the subsequent Board meeting.

(d) The President shall appoint chairmen of the various committees of the Congregation.

3.7 Vice-President.

(a) The Vice-Presidents shall assist the President in the general administration of the affairs of the Congregation.

(b) The Vice-Presidents shall, in order of their priority, carry out the duties and responsibilities of the President in the absence of the President.

3.8 The Treasurer. The Treasurer shall receive all monies of the Congregation and shall pay all obligations of the Congregation in accordance with the approved budget of the Congregation or as authorized by the President or the Board. The Treasurer shall endeavor to collect all sums due the Congregation and shall report to the President all delinquencies and the names of any members not in good standing. The Treasurer shall file a written financial report annually.

3.9 Corresponding Secretary. The Corresponding Secretary shall, upon request, prepare and mail, all correspondence on behalf of the Congregation, the Rabbi and the President, including all acknowledgements of donations and other necessary correspondence, and, upon the request and appropriate advice of the Treasurer, statements of dues and other obligations owed to the Congregation. The Corresponding Secretary and the Recording Secretary shall jointly chair a mailing committee which shall be responsible for coordinating and preparing all mailings to the entire membership of the Congregation. For all purposes in these Bylaws, email shall be considered an appropriate method for notices and correspondence.

3.10 Recording Secretary. The recording Secretary shall record the actions of the Board of Directors and of the Executive Committee, shall maintain a roster of members and shall perform such other duties as may be imposed by the President or the Board of Directors. The Recording Secretary shall jointly chair a mailing committee with the Corresponding Secretary as provided in Section 3.9.

 

ARTICLE IV – BOARD OF DIRECTORS

4.1 Members of the Board. The Board of Directors of the Congregation shall consist of the officers, past presidents who are members of the Congregation in good standing, twelve (12) additional members elected by the Congregation, the chairmen of all standing committees and the President of the Sisterhood. The chairmen of standing committees and the President of the Sisterhood may designate another member of such committees or organization, as the case may be, to act and vote in their place and stead at any meeting of the Board.

4.2 Duties. The Board of Directors shall have custody of all property belonging to the Congregation and shall run the affairs of the Congregation subject to its articles and by-laws. The members of the Board shall recognize the necessity of and maintain the confidentiality which pertains to information regarding members of the Congregation to which they are privy by virtue of the positions they hold.

4.3 Meetings. The board shall meet regularly no less than six (6) times a year or at the call of the President. A Notice of the Meeting shall be included in the Shabbos announcements for one full week prior to the meeting. Meetings of the Board shall be open to any member of the Congregation in good standing, except that a meeting, or portion of a meeting, may be closed to non-Board members if the President informs the Congregation in the Notice of that Meeting. Any member in good standing who wishes to submit an issue to the Board for consideration shall do so by submitting the issue via a written letter, electronic or verbal communication to a Board member or Executive Committee Member. Members who wish to address the Board shall be entitled to do so by submitting the request either in writing, electronic or verbal communication to the President at least 48 hours in advance of the meeting. Members will address the Board at the discretion of the President. If there are multiple requests by members to address the Board, the President may ask any member to defer consideration of the issue they wish to address until the next Board meeting.

4.4 Quorum. Twelve (12) members of the Board shall constitute a quorum, except that a lesser number may adjourn the meeting to a specified time and place.

4.5 Appeal. Any eight (8) members of the Board or thirty six (36) members of the Congregation may appeal a decision of the Board to the Congregation by addressing such appeal, in writing, to the President who shall, within five (5) days after the filing of such appeal, call a meeting of the Congregation, said meeting to be held reasonably promptly thereafter.

4.6 Term. The twelve (12) members of the Board of Directors elected by the Congregation in accordance with the provisions of this Article IV shall be elected for a term of three (3) years, one-third (1/3) of the elected members of the Board shall be elected each year.

4.7 Eligibility. Any member in good standing shall be eligible for election to the Board.

 

ARTICLE V – COMMITTEES

5.1 Executive Committee. There shall be an Executive Committee, consisting of the President, the three (3) Vice-Presidents and at least three (3) other members of the Board to be selected by the President. The Executive Committee shall be responsible for carrying out the policies made by the Board and for developing programs and taking necessary action on behalf of the Congregation during the period between meetings of the Board.

5.2 Standing Committees. The following shall be the Standing Committees of the Congregation which shall have the duties set forth herein

(a) House Committee

(b) Youth Committee

(c) Finance Committee

(d) Education Committee

5.3 House Committee. The House Committee shall be responsible for the maintenance, use, care and repair of the property and facilities of the Congregation.

5.4 Youth Committee. The Youth Committee shall be responsible for developing and carrying out programs for the children of the Congregation, including the development and operation of religious services for the children of the Congregation.

5.5 Finance Committee

5.6 Education Committee. The Education Committee shall work with the Rabbi to implement and design educational programs for the benefit of the Congregation throughout the calendar year.

5.7 Other Committees.

(a) There shall be such other non-standing committees as the Board may from time to time, approve.

(b) Any non-standing committee seeking to be recognized as a standing committee for purposes of board representation shall petition the Board of Directors for such status determination and upon approval by the Board shall be accorded such status.

 

ARTICLE VI – ELECTIONS

6.1 Time. Elections shall be held during the each year during the Congregational Meeting.

6.2 Nominations Committee. Reasonably in advance of any election, the President shall appoint a Nominations Committee to consist of three (3) members of the Board of Directors and three (3) members of the Congregation who are not members of the Board. The Committee will elect its own chairman. At least one (1) member of the Nominations Committee shall have served as a member of the previous Nominations Committee.

6.3 Disqualifications from Office.

(a) No member of the Nominations Committee shall be nominated

for the office of President or Vice-President. Any member of the Nominations Committee whose nomination for President or Vice-President is proposed by the Committee shall immediately (i) declare his unwillingness to be considered or (ii) resign from the Nominations Committee. In the event of such resignation the President shall appoint a member of the Congregation to fill the vacancy from the category in Section 6.2 to which the resigned member belonged.

(b) Any member of the Nominations Committee whose spouse is proposed for nomination to an office or to the Board shall absent himself from deliberation on that proposed nomination.

6.4 Report of Nominations Committee. The Nominations Committee shall file its report with the Recording Secretary no less than twenty (20) days prior to the meeting of the Congregation at which elections are to be held. Further nominations may be made by filing same with the Recording Secretary no later than five (5) days before the election meeting. Such nominations shall be signed by no less than ten (10) members in good standing. A copy of this section shall be distributed to the membership together with the report of the Nominations Committee promptly after receipt of such report by the Recording Secretary. The President shall notify the Congregation of the members of the Nominations Committee and include that members may make recommendations to that Committee.

6.5 Elections. Election to office in the case of a contested election shall be by closed ballot. Election shall be by a majority of the votes cast for a particular office. If no candidate receives a majority, the two (2) candidates receiving the largest number of votes shall be placed before the Congregation for further balloting.

 

ARTICLE VII -RELIGIOUS WORSHIP AND CONDUCT

7.1 Rabbi. The Rabbi of the Congregation shall have been ordained by an accepted Orthodox ordaining institution or authority.

7.2 Standards. All religious services shall be conducted according to the laws of the Torah and the Shulchan Aruch. There shall be an appropriate Mechitza for the division of worshippers according to the laws of Torah-true Judaism.

7.3 Questions. Questions of religious worship, conduct or halacha shall be determined by the Rabbi, except that upon the request of any ten (10) members in good standing and upon prior notice to the Rabbi, an appeal may be taken to the ordaining authority of the Rabbi. In the event that such ordaining authority shall no longer be in existence at the time the Rabbi is appointed or at any time thereafter, the Rabbi and the Congregation shall agree upon a mutually acceptable Orthodox ordaining authority to which or to whom such appeals may be taken.

 

ARTICLE VIII – ADOPTIONS AND AMENDMENT

8.1 Adoption. Adoption of these by-laws shall be by the members at a meeting with due notice thereof. These by-laws are intended as an omnibus amendment to and replacement of the Constitution of the Congregation in effect prior to the adoption of these by-laws and shall repeal any by-laws or resolutions previously adopted by the Board or the Congregation.

8.2 Proposed Amendments. The Board of Directors may initiate proposed amendments to these by-laws or any ten (10) members of the Congregation in good standing may initiate proposed amendments by submitting them to the Board of Directors. The Board shall submit any such proposals to the Congregation together with a recommendation for adoption or rejection. Notice of proposed amendments shall be mailed at least twenty (20) days prior to the annual or special meetings at which they shall be considered for adoption, except that upon the approval of three-fourths (3/4) of the members present at such meeting, such time period may be waived provided that there shall have been at least five (5) days written notice to the Congregation that such Proposed amendments would be considered at such meeting and that a waiver of the twenty (20) day requirement would be sought.

8.3 Adoption of Amendments. For adoption, an amendment shall require a vote of the lesser of (a) three-fourths ( 3/4 ) of all members present at the meeting or (b) two-thirds (2/3) of the membership of the Congregation, except that neither Section 1.2, this Section 8.3 nor any provision of Article VII shall be amended if five (5) members of the Congregation in good standing for at least one (1) year shall either vote against said amendment or file with the Recording Secretary a written objection to said amendment.

8.4 Effective Date. These by-laws shall take effect immediately except that the provisions of Section 3.2 shall take effect with the elections commencing in May of 1982. For purposes of the second sentence in Section 3.2 , the term of office of an officer shall refer to the term in effect at the time such officer was elected.

 

AMENDMENTS

Amended and Revised June, 1985.

Sections 4.1 & 4.6 The number of elected Members of the Board was changed from six (6) to nine (9) with three (3) being elected each year for a three (3) year term except this first year where the three (3) additional Board Members were elected for a one (1), two (2) and three (3) year term to allow the balancing out of elections of Board Members to three (3) each year.

 

Amended and Revised June 19, 1986.

Sections 4.1 & 4.6 The number of elected Members of the Board was changed from nine (9) to twelve (12) with four (4) being elected each year for a three (3) year term. One (1) new Board Member will be elected and added each year starting in 1987 until the full complement of Board Members is reached.

 

Amended and Revised November 15, 1990.

Section 3.1 now reads “Officers The officers of the congregation shall consist of a President, a first Vice-President, a second Vice-President, a Vice-President for Committees, a Treasurer, a Recording Secretary, and a Corresponding Secretary. ” Section 3.7(a) now reads “The Vice-Presidents shall assist the President in the general administration of the affairs of the Congregation, and shall render such other assistance and perform such other duties as the President may request from time to time.”

 

Amended and Revised May 23, 2004.

Section 2: Membership levels of the Congregation were further delineated and explained in section 2.

 

Amended and Revised June, 2007.

Section 2.8 was amended to include June as an alternate month. Section 2.9 was amended to require 36 members to call for a special meeting instead of 10 members. Section 3.6(c) was amended to increase presidential expenditures from $250 to $2,500 between Board Meetings and authorize $10,000 for emergency spending. Section 4.3 was amended to set guidelines for publicizing Board Meetings and allowing shul members to present to the Board. Section 4.5 was amended to increase the number of members required to appeal a decision from 10 to 36. Section 5.2 was amended to include the Education Committee as a standing committee. Section 6.1 was amended from having elections in May to having them at the Congregational Meeting.

 

Amended and Revised August 6, 2014. 

Section 5.7 was amended as follows: 1) A non-standing committee shall be established, to be called “the Mikveh Committee”. It shall oversee the construction and operation of the Lower Merion Synagogue Community Mikveh as may be authorized by the LMS Board and membership. Its members shall be appointed by the President with the majority of the Board.

2) All capital and operating funds collected and disbursed by this Committee for the LMS Community Mikveh shall be held in account(s) separate from those used for any other purposes. All expenses of the Mikveh shall be drawn exclusively from these accounts. No funds shall be transferred between these accounts and the general Synagogue accounts without 1) the express approval of the majority of the LMS Board, and 2) notification to the Synagogue membership of the Committee’s intention to so transfer funds, including the amount and purpose thereof.

3) No person shall be allowed entrance to the Mikveh or use thereof who has not paid (or has had paid on their behalf) the fees that shall be approved from time to time by the Synagogue Board. The attendants and security personnel employed at the Mikveh by the Synagogue shall be instructed, empowered and required to enforce this policy.

4) Upon the completion of the construction of the new Mikveh article 2.2(d) and 2.3(d) shall be deleted.

 

Amended and Revised July 8, 2015: The following Articles and Sections were amended to read as follows (changes are in italics):

ARTICLE II – MEMBERSHIP AND DUES

2.2 Full Membership.

A full member in good standing is entitled to the following:

(a) Yomim Noraim seats. These seats are for 1 or 2 adults, depending if the member is a single or a couple, and all unmarried children under 23 years of age who are either in college or are living at home. Additional seats, if desired, must be purchased at the full member guest rate for those members’ children who are either married, or who are unmarried and over 23 years of age. A full member must also purchase additional Yomim Noraim seats for his other guests. The full member’s rate for an additional Yomim Noraim guest seat was $ 100 as of 2007/5767. This rate is subject to change at the discretion of the Board which shall set such rates.

2.4 Mailing List Membership. A mailing list member category was established to allow those former members who moved away from the area to keep their ties with LMS. Those former LMS members who have made aliyah are entitled to a free mailing list membership. They will receive their mailings via e-mail. Persons living in zip codes 19004, 19066, 19096, 19131, or 19151 (the five zip codes) are ineligible to become mailing list members. Those persons are welcome to visit the synagogue web site and download whatever information is available from weekly announcements, synagogue bulletins, Eruv alerts, etc. Notwithstanding the above, those persons, living in the above five zip codes, who have already paid for a Mailing List Membership for that fiscal year will have their mailing-list membership honored by LMS for that fiscal year. No new mailing list memberships for these five zip codes will be accepted from 2004/5764 or beyond.

(a) A mailing list member has no standing as a member as defined by the LMS by-laws.

(b) A mailing list member (single or couple), shall pay $ 75 per year. This rate is subject to change at the discretion of the Board which shall set such rates.

(c) A mailing list member is not entitled to Yomim Noraim seats. These seats can be purchased for an additional charge. The mailing list member rate for Yomim Noraim seat was $200 as of 2007/5767. This rate is subject to change at the discretion of the Board which shall set such rates.

2.5 Dues. The membership of the Congregation shall, from time to time, establish the amount of annual dues for members and associate members. The Board shall recommend any changes in dues rates to the Synagogue membership who must approve any change.

2.11 Quorum. Ten and place. Twenty five (25) members of the Congregation shall constitute a quorum for the conduct of business, but a lesser number may adjourn the meeting to a specific time and place.

ARTICLE III – OFFICERS

3.9 Corresponding Secretary. The Corresponding Secretary shall, upon request, prepare and mail, all correspondence on behalf of the Congregation, the Rabbi and the President, including all acknowledgements of donations and other necessary correspondence, and, upon the request and appropriate advice of the Treasurer, statements of dues and other obligations owed to the Congregation. The Corresponding Secretary and the Recording Secretary shall jointly chair a mailing committee which shall be responsible for coordinating and preparing all mailings to the entire membership of the Congregation. For all purposes in these Bylaws, email shall be considered an appropriate method for notices and correspondence.

ARTICLE IV – BOARD OF DIRECTORS

4.4 QuorumTwelve (12) members of the Board shall constitute a quorum, except that a lesser number may adjourn the meeting to a specified time and place.

ARTICLE V – COMMITTEES

5.2 Standing Committees. The following shall be the Standing Committees of the Congregation which shall have the duties set forth herein

(a) House Committee

(b) Youth Committee

(c) Finance Committee

(d) Education Committee

ARTICLE VI – ELECTIONS

6.4 Report of Nominations Committee. The Nominations Committee shall file its report with the Recording Secretary no less than twenty (20) days prior to the meeting of the Congregation at which elections are to be held. Further nominations may be made by filing same with the Recording Secretary no later than five (5) days before the election meeting. Such nominations shall be signed by no less than ten (10) members in good standing. A copy of this section shall be distributed to the membership together with the report of the Nominations Committee promptly after receipt of such report by the Recording Secretary. The President shall notify the Congregation of the members of the Nominations Committee and include that members may make recommendations to that Committee.